class Net::SSH::KnownHosts

Searches an OpenSSH-style known-host file for a given host, and returns all matching keys. This is used to implement host-key verification, as well as to determine what key a user prefers to use for a given host.

This is used internally by Net::SSH, and will never need to be used directly by consumers of the library.





The host-key file name that this KnownHosts instance will use to search for keys.

Public Class Methods

add(host, key, options={}) click to toggle source

Looks in all user known host files (see ::hostfiles) and tries to add an entry for the given host and key to the first file it is able to.

# File lib/net/ssh/known_hosts.rb, line 88
def add(host, key, options={})
  hostfiles(options, :user).each do |file|
    begin, key)
    rescue SystemCallError
      # try the next hostfile
hostfiles(options, which=:all) click to toggle source

Looks in the given options hash for the :user_known_hosts_file and :global_known_hosts_file keys, and returns an array of all known hosts files. If the :user_known_hosts_file key is not set, the default is returned (~/.ssh/known_hosts and ~/.ssh/known_hosts2). If :global_known_hosts_file is not set, the default is used (/etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts and /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts2).

If you only want the user known host files, you can pass :user as the second option.

# File lib/net/ssh/known_hosts.rb, line 73
def hostfiles(options, which=:all)
  files = []

  files += Array(options[:user_known_hosts_file] || %w[~/.ssh/known_hosts ~/.ssh/known_hosts2]) if which == :all || which == :user

  if which == :all || which == :global
    files += Array(options[:global_known_hosts_file] || %w[/etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts2])

  return files
new(source) click to toggle source

Instantiate a new KnownHosts instance that will search the given known-hosts file. The path is expanded file File.expand_path.

# File lib/net/ssh/known_hosts.rb, line 106
def initialize(source)
  @source = File.expand_path(source)
search_for(host, options={}) click to toggle source

Searches all known host files (see ::hostfiles) for all keys of the given host. Returns an enumerable of keys found.

# File lib/net/ssh/known_hosts.rb, line 54
def search_for(host, options={}), host, options), host, self, options)
search_in(files, host, options = {}) click to toggle source

Search for all known keys for the given host, in every file given in the files array. Returns the list of keys.

# File lib/net/ssh/known_hosts.rb, line 60
def search_in(files, host, options = {})
  files.flat_map { |file|, options) }

Public Instance Methods

add(host, key) click to toggle source

Tries to append an entry to the current source file for the given host and key. If it is unable to (because the file is not writable, for instance), an exception will be raised.

# File lib/net/ssh/known_hosts.rb, line 187
def add(host, key), "a") do |file|
    blob = [Net::SSH::Buffer.from(:key, key).to_s].pack("m*").gsub(/\s/, "")
    file.puts "#{host} #{key.ssh_type} #{blob}"
keys_for(host, options = {}) click to toggle source

Returns an array of all keys that are known to be associatd with the given host. The host parameter is either the domain name or ip address of the host, or both (comma-separated). Additionally, if a non-standard port is being used, it may be specified by putting the host (or ip, or both) in square brackets, and appending the port outside the brackets after a colon. Possible formats for host, then, are;

# File lib/net/ssh/known_hosts.rb, line 123
def keys_for(host, options = {})
  keys = []
  return keys unless File.readable?(source)

  entries = host.split(/,/)
  host_name = entries[0]
  host_ip = entries[1] do |file|
    file.each_line do |line|
      hosts, type, key_content = line.split(' ')
      next unless hosts || hosts.start_with?('#')

      hostlist = hosts.split(',')

      next unless SUPPORTED_TYPE.include?(type)

      found = hostlist.any? { |pattern| match(host_name, pattern) } || known_host_hash?(hostlist, entries)
      next unless found

      found = hostlist.include?(host_ip) if options[:check_host_ip] && entries.size > 1 && hostlist.size > 1
      next unless found

      blob = key_content.unpack("m*").first
      keys <<

known_host_hash?(hostlist, entries) click to toggle source

Indicates whether one of the entries matches an hostname that has been stored as a HMAC-SHA1 hash in the known hosts.

# File lib/net/ssh/known_hosts.rb, line 171
def known_host_hash?(hostlist, entries)
  if hostlist.size == 1 && hostlist.first =~ /\A\|1(\|.+){2}\z/
    chunks = hostlist.first.split(/\|/)
    salt = Base64.decode64(chunks[2])
    digest ='sha1')
    entries.each do |entry|
      hmac = OpenSSL::HMAC.digest(digest, salt, entry)
      return true if Base64.encode64(hmac).chomp == chunks[3]
match(host, pattern) click to toggle source
# File lib/net/ssh/known_hosts.rb, line 154
def match(host, pattern)
  if pattern.include?('*') || pattern.include?('?')
    # see man 8 sshd for pattern details
    pattern_regexp = pattern.split('*').map do |x|
      x.split('?').map do |y|

    host =~"\\A#{pattern_regexp}\\z")
    host == pattern